Uploading Files

To make files work as expected, there's a lot going on behind the scenes. Make sure to read through the Files section in Getting Started first as we'll be building on that information.

This section only talks about file uploading. For non-uploaded files such as URLs and file IDs, you just need to pass a string.


Let's start by talking about how the library represents files as part of a Config.

Static Fields

Most endpoints use static file fields. For example, sendPhoto expects a single file named photo. All we have to do is set that single field with the correct value (either a string or multipart file). Methods like sendDocument take two file uploads, a document and a thumb. These are pretty straightforward.

Remembering that the Fileable interface only requires one method, let's implement it for DocumentConfig.

func (config DocumentConfig) files() []RequestFile {
    // We can have multiple files, so we'll create an array. We also know that
    // there always is a document file, so initialize the array with that.
	files := []RequestFile{{
		Name: "document",
		File: config.File,

    // We'll only add a file if we have one.
	if config.Thumb != nil {
		files = append(files, RequestFile{
			Name: "thumb",
			File: config.Thumb,

	return files

Telegram also supports the attach:// syntax (discussed more later) for thumbnails, but there's no reason to make things more complicated.

Dynamic Fields

Of course, not everything can be so simple. Methods like sendMediaGroup can accept many files, and each file can have custom markup. Using a static field isn't possible because we need to specify which field is attached to each item. Telegram introduced the attach:// syntax for this.

Let's follow through creating a new media group with string and file uploads.

First, we start by creating some InputMediaPhoto.

photo := tgbotapi.NewInputMediaPhoto("tests/image.jpg")
url := tgbotapi.NewInputMediaPhoto(tgbotapi.FileURL("https://i.imgur.com/unQLJIb.jpg"))

This created a new InputMediaPhoto struct, with a type of photo and the media interface that we specified.

We'll now create our media group with the photo and URL.

mediaGroup := NewMediaGroup(ChatID, []interface{}{

A MediaGroupConfig stores all of the media in an array of interfaces. We now have all of the data we need to upload, but how do we figure out field names for uploads? We didn't specify attach://unique-file anywhere.

When the library goes to upload the files, it looks at the params and files for the Config. The params are generated by transforming the file into a value more suitable for uploading, file IDs and URLs are untouched but uploaded types are all changed into attach://file-%d. When collecting a list of files to upload, it names them the same way. This creates a nearly transparent way of handling multiple files in the background without the user having to consider what's going on.

Library Processing

If at some point in the future new upload types are required, let's talk about where the current types are used.

Upload types are defined in configs.go. Where possible, type aliases are preferred. Structs can be used when multiple fields are required.

The main usage of the upload types happens in UploadFiles. It switches on each file's type in order to determine how to upload it. Files that aren't uploaded (file IDs, URLs) are converted back into strings and passed through as strings into the correct field. Uploaded types are processed as needed (opening files, etc.) and written into the form using a copy approach in a goroutine to reduce memory usage.

In addition to UploadFiles, there's more processing of upload types in the prepareInputMediaParam and prepareInputMediaFile functions. These look at the InputMedia types to determine which files are uploaded and which are passed through as strings. They only need to be aware of which files need to be replaced with attach:// fields.